UNICEF has been working in India since 1949. The largest UN organisation in the country, it is currently implementing a $400 million programme from
2003 to 2007. UNICEF is fully committed to working with the Government of India to ensure that each child born in this vast and complex country
gets the best start in life, thrives and develops to his or her full potential.
Integrated Child Development Services
The Integrated Child Development Services Programme aims at providing services to pre-school children in an integrated manner so as to ensure
proper growth and development of children in rural, tribal and slum areas. ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme.
BPNI (Breastfeeding Promotion Network of India) Maharashtra
BPNI is a registered, independent, non-profit, national organization that works towards protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and
appropriate complementary feeding of infants and young children. BPNI believes that breastfeeding is the right of all mothers and children.
Health Education To Villages
We create and promote health educational programs that will improve child health and quality of life, and will give mothers and communities more control over their health status.
World Breastfeeding Week August 1 -7
The World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) is the greatest outreach vehicle
for the breastfeeding movement, being celebrated in over 120 countries. Officially it is celebrated from
1–7 August. However, groups may choose other dates to make it a more
successful event in their countries.
For more information on the theme, exciting activities &
materials for download, please visit the
World Breastfeeding Week website.
Worldwide Breastfeeding Resources
World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action
WABA is a global network of organizations and individuals who believe
breastfeeding is the right of all children and mothers and who dedicate
themselves to protect, promote and support this right. WABA acts on the
Innocenti Declaration and works in liaison with UNICEF.
Low Birth-weight Babies
Labour and Birthing
Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project maintains a collection of useful
resources on maternal nutrition, infant and young child feeding, prevention of
mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and more. Our collection offers a
variety of high-quality training materials, publications, web links, and other
Behavior change communication │
Complementary feeding │
General nutrition │
Infant feeding and emergencies │
Infant feeding and HIV │
Maternal nutrition │
Monitoring and evaluation│
Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done
Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five
globally. Nearly one in five child deaths – about 1.5 million each year – is
due to diarrhoea. It kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and
measles combined. Today, only 39 per cent of children with diarrhoea in
developing countries receive the recommended treatment, and limited trend
data suggest that there has been little progress since 2000.
The objective of this WHO/UNICEF report is to focus attention on the
prevention and management of diarrhoeal diseases as central to improving
child survival. It examines the latest available information on the burden
and distribution of childhood diarrhoea. It also analyses how well countries
are doing in making available key interventions proven to reduce its toll.
Most importantly, it lays out a new strategy for diarrhoea control, one that
is based on interventions drawn from different sectors that have
demonstrated potential to save children's lives. It sets out a 7-point plan
that includes a treatment package to reduce childhood diarrhoea deaths, as
well as a prevention package to make a lasting reduction in the diarrhoea
burden in the medium to long term.
Call to Action on diarrhoeal disease
With more resources and effective implementation of available health, water and sanitation solutions, we can save millions of children right now.
That diarrhoea remains a leading cause of death among children around the world exemplifies the urgency of reinvigorating efforts to improve child health and human development.
Impact of early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding on newborn deaths Publication Date: January 8, 2010
This brief highlights results from two recent studies in Ghana and Nepal showing that initiation of breastfeeding within
the first hour after birth could prevent about 20% of neonatal deaths. Potential reasons for this link, the importance of
reducing neonatal mortality to achieve Millennium Development Goal #4, and program and policy implications are discussed.
Alive & Thrive focuses on three technical areas to save lives, improve health and nutrition, and reduce stunting.
1. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within the first hour of birth)
2. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life
3. Timely, adequate, and appropriate
Rapid advice: revised WHO principles and recommendations on infant
feeding in the context of HIV – November 2009
28 pages 219 kb
On 30 November 2009, the eve of World AIDS Day, the WHO released new
recommendations on treatment, prevention and infant feeding in the context
of HIV, based on the latest scientific evidence.
The new recommendations call for earlier initiation of antiretroviral
therapy (ART) for adults and adolescents, the delivery of more
patient-friendly antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), and prolonged use of ARVs to
reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. And, for the first
time, WHO recommends that HIV-positive mothers or their infants take ARVs
while breastfeeding to prevent transmission.
Click here for
the WHO announcement.
Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 +
Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action 6 pages 403 kb
The Joint Statement on Continued Breastfeeding was produced following the
WABA GBPM in October 2008 in response to shared concerns that breastfeeding
after 6 months has slipped off the policy and programme agenda. Action and
investment in improving complementary feeding or providing foods supplements
seems to be taking place with little consideration for supporting or
improving breastfeeding amongst 6 < 24+ month old children, despite
estimates that 20% of deaths in 12 < 24 month age group in developing
countries are due to lack of breastfeeding. The statement calls upon
everyone involved in improving the health and development of infants and
young children to take steps to ensure that continued breastfeeding 6-24+
months is protected, promoted and supported as the precondition for, and
foundation of, appropriate complementary feeding. Steps for action
encompassing communication, education and promotion; practical support;
breastfeeding as part of complementary feeding; definitions and monitoring;
addressing misinformation through marketing and special circumstances are
Click here for the statement.
Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Tiess
This information is current as of March 8, 2007
Pediatrics 1998;102;1244-DOI: 10.1542/peds.102.5.SE1.1244
The original version of this article, along with updated information and
services, is located at:
Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have
shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included
among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the
breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The
attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated
through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling,
and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.
In the past 10 years, several provocative behavioral and physiologic
observations in both infants and mothers have altered our perception of
their readiness to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. In
addition, two simple interventions for mothers and their infants in the
perinatal period have led to new insights into their relationship at the
time of birth.
This report describes and integrates these new findings and observations and
discusses how they will alter current caregiving practices in the perinatal
period and their implications for additional research.
Effect of early infant feeding practices on infection-specific neonatal
mortality: an investigation of the causal links with observational data
from rural Ghana
Karen M Edmond, Betty R Kirkwood, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Seth Owusu-Agyei, and Lisa S Hurt
Beginning Breastfeeding From First Day of Life Reduces Infection Related
Deaths in Newborns by 2.6 times.
Enough scientific evidence is available for the benefits of exclusive
breastfeeding. This is the first epidemiologic evidence of such a causal
association between early breastfeeding and infection specific mortality
in the newborn infants. Edmonds at al, in the October 2007 issue of the
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ( Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86: 1126
31), show that those newborns in Ghana, who initiated breastfeeding
within 1 hour were less likely to die of neonatal sepsis than those who
didn't. It is intuitively correct but this is the first time a study has
demonstrated this with good data and specifically infection specific
Delayed Breastfeeding Initiation Increases Risk of Neonatal Mortality
Karen M. Edmond; Charles Zandoh; Maria A. Quigley; Seeba Amenga-Etego; Seth Owusu-Agyei and Betty R. Kirkwood
This information is current as of April 24, 2006
Pediatrics 2006;117;380-386 - DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-1496
The original version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located at:
Background: Breastfeeding promotion is a key child survival strategy.
Although there is an extensive scientific basis for its impact on
postneonatal mortality, evidence is sparse for its impact on neonatal mortality.
Objectives: We sought to assess the contribution of the timing of initiation of breastfeeding to any impact.
Evidence for the ten steps to successful breastfeeding (1998)
World Health Organization (WHO)
This document outlines the WHO/UNICEF-recommended ten steps to successful breastfeeding and provides rationale for their efficacy, as well as
advocacy and education approaches.
English 934 kb | Español 435 kb
Français 640 kb
The Effect of Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Shortly After Birth on
the Neurobehavioral Responses of the Term Newborn: A Randomized,
Sari Goldstein Ferber and Imad R. Makhoul
Pediatrics 2004;113;858-865 - DOI: 10.1542/peds.113.4.858
This information is current as of March 25, 2007
The original version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located at:
Background: The method of skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care [KC]) has
shown physiologic, cognitive, and emotional gains for preterm infants;
however, KC has not been studied adequately in term newborns.
Aims: To evaluate the effect of KC, used shortly after delivery, on the
neurobehavioral responses of the healthy newborn.
Effect of the Baby-Friendly Initiative on Infant Abandonment in a Russian
Natalya M. Lvoff; Victor Lvoff, MF, PhD; Marshall H. Klaus, MD
Objective: To study whether early mother-infant contact with suckling and
rooming-in reduces the rate of infant abandonment.
Design: The infant abandonment rate was studied at a Russian hospital
before and after the introduction of early mother-infant contact with
suckling and rooming-in.
No Separation of Mother and Baby with Unlimited Opportunity for Breastfeeding
Lamaze International Education Council, Crenshaw Jeannette, RN, MSN, IBCLC,
LCCE, FACCE, Phyllis H. Klaus, CSW, MFT, and Marshall H. Klaus, MD
In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze
International and reprinted here with permission—the value of keeping
mothers and their babies together from the moment of birth is discussed and
presented as an evidenced-based practice that helps promote, protect, and
support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their
families. Babies held skin-to-skin with their mothers cry less often,
breathe easier, and stay warmer than babies who are separated from their
mothers. They also instinctively attach to the breast and begin
breastfeeding, usually within one hour of birth. The advantages of
rooming-in for mother and baby are also discussed. The accompanying
commentary—written by two leading professionals in the field of maternity
care and pediatrics—provides further evidence to support the practice of
keeping mothers and their babies together after birth. Lamaze International
encourages women to give birth in settings that do not separate mothers and
babies after birth.
for life: Breastfeeding (2006)
outlines the health benefits derived from breastfeeding practices.
Persistent diarrhoea and breastfeeding (1997)
WHO Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development
This document outlines the protective properties of breast milk,
particularly its role in preventing acute diarrhea and reducing
persistent diarrheal episodes among infants and young children up to two
years of age.
English 2 mb
Breastfeeding counselling: A trainer's course; Director's guide (1993)
This resource is targeted toward health care workers for developing the
clinical and interpersonal skills needed to support optimal
English 608 kb
Guides for trainers and participants may be accessed online at
Facts for feeding (2006)
Linkages Project (gathered on
This resource from the Rehydration Project offers publications on
recommended feeding and dietary practices to improve nutritional status.
Policy makers, health care providers, and communicators can use these
guidelines for developing messages and activities appropriate to local
Appropriate use of human and non-human milk for
the dietary management of children with diarrhoea (1991)
Brown K, Lake A. Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research. 9(3):168–185.
This paper reviews feeding practices for children with diarrhea and
outlines risks associated with the use of non-human milk for feeding
during gastrointestinal infection, including the potential for an
increase in the severity and duration of illness.
Gastroenteritis, diarrhoea, and breastfeeding
Golding J, Emmett P, Rogers I. Early Human Development. 49(Suppl):S83–S103.
This literature review determined that exclusive breastfeeding provides a
protective effect from gastroenteritis and diarrhea.
Human milk protection against infectious
diarrhea: Implications for prevention and clinical care (2004)
Morrow A, Rangel J. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 15:221-228.
This article provides an overview of the health benefits of exclusive
breastfeeding during the first six months of life, as well as its place
in diarrhea prevention strategies.
Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal
diseases in young children: Promotion of breastfeeding (1984)
Feachem R, Koblinsky M. Bulletin of the World Health
This review analyzed the relative risks of non-breastfed and breastfed
infants suffering diarrheal episodes and found that breastfeeding has a
protective effect in reducing diarrheal disease incidence. The authors
support promotion of breastfeeding through educational outreach to mothers.
English 860 kb
Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal
diseases in young children: Weaning education (1985)
Ashworth A, Feachem R. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 63(6):1115–1127.
This study evaluated whether education on weaning practices can improve
nutritional status among children and therefore reduce diarrheal incidence and severity.
English 644 kb
Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for
the term infant during the first six months of life (2002)
This document reviews the impact of exclusive breastfeeding in terms of
infant growth, immune response, and neurodevelopment. Nutrients provided
through breastfeeding are outlined, including zinc.
English 272 kb
Oral Aversion in the Breastfed Neonate
Linda Killion Healow, BSN, IBCLC and Rebecca Sliter Hugh, IBCLC
"Oral Aversion" (oral-tactile hypersensitivity) due to oral invasion of the
neonate immediately after birth may very well be one of the causes of Lactation Failure.
(a newborn's mouth and feeding behavior must be treated with the utmost
respect. While procedures such as inserting a feeding tube or suctioning
a newborn may be necessary to provide quality health care, they are,
nevertheless, invasive. And while any oral intervention is less than
ideal, a procedure that is roughly done, however inadvertently,
qualifies as an invasion. Some lactation consultants, faced with the
challenges of persuading justifiably reluctant newborns to take the
breast, have described this type of oral invasion as akin to rape)
The Effect of Timing of Cord Clamping on Neonatal Venous Hematocrit Values
and Clinical Outcome at Term: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
José M. Ceriani Cernadas, Guillermo Carroli, Liliana Pellegrini, Lucas Otaño,
Marina Ferreira, Carolina Ricci, Ofelia Casas, Daniel Giordano and Jaime Lardizábal
Pediatrics 2006;117;779-786; originally published online Mar 27, 2006;
Download file in
380 kb - 10 pages
The online version of this article, along with updated information and
services, is located on the World Wide Web at:
Background: The umbilical cord is usually clamped immediately after birth.
There is no sound evidence to support this approach, which might deprive the
newborn of some benefits such as an increase in iron storage.
Objectives: We sought to determine the effect of timing of cord clamping on
neonatal venous hematocrit and clinical outcome in term newborns and
maternal postpartum hemorrhage.
Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican
infants: a randomised controlled trial
Camila M Chaparro, Lynnette M Neufeld, Gilberto Tena Alavez, Raúl Eguia-Líz Cedillo, Kathryn G Dewey
Lancet June 17, 2006; 367: 1997–2004
Download file in
117 kb - 8 pages
Background: Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord increases the
infant's iron endowment at birth and haemoglobin concentration at 2 months
of age. We aimed to assess whether a 2-minute delay in the clamping of the
umbilical cord of normal-weight, full-term infants improved iron and
haematological status up to 6 months of age.
Methods: 476 mother-infant pairs were recruited at a large obstetrics
hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, randomly assigned to delayed clamping (2
min after delivery of the infant's shoulders) or early clamping (around 10 s
after delivery), and followed up until 6 months postpartum. Primary outcomes
were infant haematological status and iron status at 6 months of age, and
analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with
ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00298051.