Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl
Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl
 
Breastfeeding Resources
click > Breastfeeding and HIV Resources > Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) Resources


Breastfeeding Resources

World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA)
World Health Organization (WHO)
NHS Choices - Parenting Information
Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project
Breastfeeding Videos
Key Documents
The WHO Child Growth Standards
Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding
Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF)
International code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes
Breastfeeding
Lancet 2008 Nutrition Series
Facts for Feeding
Breastfeeding: Training Materials
Breastfeeding Guidelines
Infant Feeding Counseling Materials
Breastfeeding Policies
Low Birth-weight Babies
Labour and Birthing
Lactation Management
Breastfeeding and Diarrhoea
Dialogue on Diarrhoea Links
Initiation of Breastfeeding
Complementary Feeding
Research
Regional Publications
Peer-reviewed Articles
Other Related Resources
Posters
LINKAGES Project Publications


>> Did you ever wonder what's in... ? Breastmilk - Formula
>> How Breastmilk is Made
>> America's Billion Dollar Baby Scam




WABA



World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action [WABA]
WABA is a global network of organizations and individuals who believe breastfeeding is the right of all children and mothers and who dedicate themselves to protect, promote and support this right. WABA acts on the Innocenti Declaration and works in liaison with UNICEF.

Breastfeeding Gateway


Healthcare Information For All by 2015
Health Information For All by 2015
Every day, tens of thousands of children, women and men die needlessly for want of simple, low-cost interventions – interventions that are often already locally available. A major contributing factor is that the mother, family caregiver or health worker does not have access to the information and knowledge they need, when they need it, to make appropriate decisions and save lives.

HIFA2015 is a campaign and knowledge network with more than 4000 members representing 1800 organisations in 157 countries worldwide. Members include health workers, publishers, librarians, information technologists, researchers, social scientists, journalists, policy-makers and others – all working together towards the HIFA2015 goal.


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World Health Organization (WHO)

WHO: Promoting proper feeding for infants and young children
 - Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative
 - Complementary feeding
 - Exclusive breastfeeding
 - Feeding in Exceptionally Difficult Circumstances
 - Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding
 - International Code of Breast-milk Substitutes

 - Database on Infant and Young Child Feeding A-Z list
 - Data sources and inclusion criteria
 - Key to the data tables




NHS Choices - Parenting Information


The Department of Health's latest online publications include pregnancy, your child's health from birth to five years, and information on feeding.



Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project


Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project

The Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project maintains a collection of useful resources on maternal nutrition, infant and young child feeding, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and more. Our collection offers a variety of high-quality training materials, publications, web links, and other helpful resources.

Behavior change communicationBreastfeedingComplementary feedingGeneral nutritionInfant feeding and emergencies Infant feeding and HIVMaternal nutritionMonitoring and evaluationMultilanguage resources

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Breastfeeding Videos

Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl


UNICEF, WHO and WABA along with the scientific community strongly recommend initiating breastfeeding within a half-hour of birth. Evidence shows that early initiation can prevent 22% of all deaths among babies below one month in developing countries.

Every newborn, when placed on the mother's abdomen, soon after birth, has the ability to find its mother's breast all on its own and to decide when to take the first breastfeed. This is called the 'Breast Crawl'.

Watch the video in English — Italian — Marathi (subtitled) — Spanish (subtitled)


Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding


Every facility providing maternity services and care for newborn infants should:

Step 1 - Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff.
Step 2 - Train all health care staff in skills necessary to implement this policy.
Step 3 - Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breastfeeding.
Step 4 - Help mothers initiate breastfeeding within a half-hour of birth.
Step 5 - Show mothers how to breastfeed and how to maintain lactation, even if they should be separated from their infants.
Step 6 - Give newborn infants no food or drink other than breast milk unless medically indicated.
Step 7 - Practice rooming-in - allow mothers and infants to remain together - 24 hours a day.
Step 8 - Encourage breastfeeding on demand.
Step 9 - Give no artificial teats or pacifiers (also called dummies or soothers) to breastfeeding infants.
Step 10 - Foster the establishment of breastfeeding support groups and refer mothers to them on discharge from the hospital or clinic.

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in Marathi

Early and Exclusive Breastfeeding   प्रथम दूध, सर्वश्रेष्ठ दूध - स्तनपान - Hindi   —   पहिले दूध, सर्वोत्तम दूध - स्तनपान - Marathi

Food for Life   —   Food for Life: Breastfeeding

Films en Français   —   Allaitement maternel - 0 à 6 mois

Somali Language Films   —   Naas-nuujinta

Swahili Language Films   —   Kunyonyesha (Miezi 0 - 6)

Early Initiation   -   Bangladesh

Perception of Insufficient Milk   -   Bangladesh

Meena on Breastfeeding: The Story of the Good Fairy   -   Bangladesh

Exclusive Breastfeeding for the First 6 Months   -   Ethiopia

Initiation of Colostrum Within 1 Hour of Birth   -   Ethiopia

Breastmilk is Enough for First 6 Months   -   Viet Nam

No Water, Breastfeed Only   -   Viet Nam

Early Initiation of Breastfeeding   -   Viet Nam

Breastfeeding Technique 1   -   Animation

Benefits of Breastfeeding 2   -   Animation

Breastfeeding — Technique & Benefits   -   Animation

Breastfeeding — Technique & Benefits - French

स्तनपान कराना   -   Hindi

Exclusive breastfeeding   -   Awadhi

Optimal breastfeeding practices   -   Awadhi

Importance of exclusive breastfeeding   -   Odia



Key Documents


UNICEF: Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

PowerPoint presentation


Breastfeeding Facts for Life Facts for Life: Breastfeeding (2010)
Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk.

If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life – meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water – it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved.


Infant and young child feeding: Model Chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals (2009)
This document brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire. It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age.


Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding 2010 Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding 2010
Principles and recommendations for infant feeding in the context of HIV and a summary of evidence
Authors: World Health Organization
Download [pdf 1.58Mb]

Significant programmatic experience and research evidence regarding HIV and infant feeding have accumulated since WHO's recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV were last revised in 2006. In particular, evidence has been reported that antiretroviral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. This evidence has major implications for how women living with HIV might feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel these mothers. Together, breastfeeding and ARV intervention have the potential to significantly improve infants' chances of surviving while remaining HIV uninfected.

Acceptable medical reasons for use of breast-milk substitutes

WHO/UNICEF - 6 pages

English [pdf 209kb] pdf format
Portuguese [pdf 73kb]pdf format
Spanish [pdf 115kb]pdf format
Acceptable medical reasons for use of breast-milk substitutes (2009)

Almost all mothers can breastfeed successfully -- initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life, breastfeeding exclusively for the first six months and continuing breastfeeding (along with giving appropriate complementary foods) up to two years of age or beyond. Positive effects of breastfeeding on the health of infants and mothers are observed in all settings.

Nevertheless, a small number of health conditions of the infant or the mother may justify recommending that she does not breastfeed temporarily or permanently. Whenever stopping breastfeeding is considered, the benefits of breastfeeding should be weighed against the risks posed by the presence of the specific conditions listed.

This list of acceptable medical reasons for temporary or long-term use of breast-milk substitutes is made available as an independent tool for health professionals working with mothers and newborn infants, as part of the Baby-friendly Hospitals Initiative.


Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding (2007)
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis - Download pdf formatpdf

The Department of Child and Adolescent Health, in collaboration with the epidemiology unit in the University of Pelotas, Brazil, conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to assess the association between breastfeeding and blood pressure, diabetes and related indicators, serum cholesterol, overweight and obesity, and intellectual performance.

Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality, using a standardized protocol, and disagreement was resolved by consensus rating. Subjects who were breastfed experienced lower mean blood pressure and total cholesterol, as well as higher performance in intelligence tests. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and type-2 diabetes was lower among breastfed subjects. All effects were statistically significant but for some outcomes their magnitude was relatively modest.


Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Infant
PowerPoint presentation
Part of BFHI Section 2: Strengthening and sustaining the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative


Evidence for the ten steps to successful breastfeeding (1998)
This document outlines the WHO/UNICEF-recommended ten steps to successful breastfeeding and provides rationale for their efficacy, as well as advocacy and education approaches.  - 118 pages
World Health Organization (WHO)
English 934 kb pdf | Español 435 kb pdfFrançais 640 kb pdf


Protecting, promoting and supporting breast-feeding: the special role of maternity services - A Joint WHO/UNICEF Statement



WHO - Session 3: The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative



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The WHO Child Growth Standards

New international Child Growth Standards for infants and young children provide evidence and guidance for the first time about how every child in the world should grow.The WHO web site presents complete information on the WHO Child Growth Standards.

These standards were developed using data collected in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The site presents documentation on how the physical growth curves and motor milestone windows of achievement were developed as well as application tools to support implementation of the standards.

Documentation
The following documents describe the sample and methods used to construct the standards and present the final charts.

WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and development
Acta Paediatrica Supplement
Chart catalogue | en español





Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding


Infant and young child nutrition - Global strategy for infant and young child feeding Global strategy for infant and young child feeding (2003)
Geneva, World Health Organization


English [pdf 680kb] pdf format¦ Promotional flyer [pdf 1.29Mb]pdf format
French [pdf 1.3Mb] pdf format¦ Promotional flyer [pdf 873kb]pdf format
Spanish [pdf 878kb] pdf format¦ Promotional flyer [pdf 1.3Mb]pdf format
Arabic [pdf 675kb] pdf format
Chinese[pdf 4.8Mb]pdf format
Russian [pdf 475kb] pdf format





Planning guide for national implementation of the Global strategy for infant and young child feeding (2007)
This document translates the aim, objectives and operational targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding into concrete, focused national strategy, policy and action plans.
Planning guide for national implementation of the global strategy for infant and young child feeding
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006 - Full text [pdf 496kb]pdf format




Implementing the global strategy for infant and young child feeding (2003)
Report of a technical meeting
Geneva, World Health Organization, 3-5 February 2003

Full text [pdf 713kb]pdf format






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Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) - WHO


WHO Topic: Infant feeding/breastfeeding


Infant and young child feeding - tools and materials (2009)


Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices - Part I: Definitions (2008)
Conclusions of a consensus meeting held 6–8 November 2007 in Washington D.C., USA


Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices (2007)
Conclusions of a consensus meeting
Washington D.C., USA, 6-8 November 2007

Why is breastfeeding so important?Why Is Breastfeeding So Important?
Why Is Breastfeeding So Important?Download .pdf 17.5 mb.

Breastfeeding provides the perfect nutrition for your baby and provides many health benefits for both mother and baby.
- Initiating breast feeding within the first hour and exclusive breastfeeding can prevent under two mortality.
- Breastfeeding: Exclusive breastfeeding
- Colostrum - Gift of a protective cover from the mother
- We believe all mothers know how to feed their child. But do they?
- Myths and facts about breast milk
- Complimentary feeding
- Role of media in promoting proper young child feeding: Media should focus on and promote measures that are required to be taken urgently to ensure the survival of children

Infant and Young Child Feeding Update (2006)pdf format
Author(s): Mukuria A, Kothari MT, Abderrahim N
Authoring organization(s): Macro International for the US Agency for International Development

Summary: This update provides data on key indicators related to optimal feeding practices for children under five. The update includes a new summary of infant and young child feeding indicators for children 6 to 23 months and reports on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 1998 and 2004 from 43 countries in five regions around the world: sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/West Asia/Europe, Central Asia, South/Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.


Infant and young child feeding (2003)
A tool for assessing national practices, policies and programmes
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003

Full text [pdf 1.69Mb]pdf format




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International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes


Protecting Infant Health - the Health Worker's Guide to the Code, 11th Edition
Protecting Infant Health – A Health Worker's Guide to the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes (11th edition) by Annelies Allain and Yeong Joo Kean, 80 pages, illustrated is now available. This popular booklet is designed to make the legal Code language easy to understand. "Protecting Infant Health" shows how active use of the Code can make a difference, protect breastfeeding and save lives. It also discusses current issues such as the Code in the context of emergencies, HIV and breastfeeding, health claims and sponsorship.

Visit the IBFAN Publications page for a complete list of resources relating to the International Code.
For further information, please contact IBFAN Penang at: P.O. Box 19, 10700 Penang, Malaysia. Fax: 604-890 7291
E-mail: [email protected]



The international code of marketing of breast-milk substitutesThe international code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes
Frequently asked questions

Geneva, World Health Organization, Updated version 2008

Full text [pdf 256kb] pdf format


Infant formula and related trade issues in the context of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes
Health Implications of Direct Advertising of Infant Formula
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 Full text [pdf 18kb]pdf format


The International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (1998)
Summary of action taken by WHO Member States and other interested parties, 1994-1998


Follow-Up Formula in the Context of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes
Under Revision - Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001

This WHO briefing note is presently being considered for revision by the World Health Organization pending review of new and emerging information on the subject. It has therefore been decided by the Organization to withdraw the current version of the briefing note from its website.


The international code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes
A common review and evaluation framework
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996


The International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (1992)
Survey of national legislation and other measures adopted (1981-1991)


Review and evaluation of national action taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (1991)
Report of a technical meeting, The Hague, 30 September - 3 October 1991


The International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (1990)
Synthesis of reports on action taken (1981-1990)


International code of marketing of breast-milk substitutesInternational code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1981
Summary: This is the original International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes adopted by the World Health Organization in 1981.

English [pdf 131kb]pdf format | French [pdf 73kb] pdf format




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Breastfeeding

WHO: Documents on infant feeding/breastfeeding listed by year of publication

Infant and young child feeding list of publications

Learning from Large-Scale Community-Based Programmes to Improve Breastfeeding Practices (2008)
Authoring organization(s): World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Academy for Educational Development, Africa’s Health in 2010
Published: 2008

Summary: Community-based breastfeeding promotion and support is one of the key components of a comprehensive program to improve breastfeeding practices, as outlined in the WHO/UNICEF Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. This report shares experiences and lessons from community-based approaches so that others can use the information to strengthen existing programs and design new ones. The paper will be of particular value to individuals who are interested in studying and applying different models and the results and lessons emerging from them and assessing their applicability in a new setting.


Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) - Part III - Chapter 11 - Breastfeeding


Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of lifeNutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life (2002)
Geneva, World Health Organization

Full text [pdf 278kb]pdf format

The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic reviewThe optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001

Full text [pdf 1.06Mb]pdf format

Report of the expert consultation of the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeedingReport of the expert consultation of the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding
Report of an expert consultation
Geneva, World Health Organization, 28-30 March 2001

Full text [pdf 122kb]pdf format


The WHO Global Data Bank on Infant and Young Child Feeding Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding

Feeding Your Baby From Six Months To One Yearpdf format
Your guide to help you introduce food to your baby
Adapted and reproduced with permission of Peel Public Health, Region of Peel

A Practical Workbook to Protect, Promote and Support Breastfeeding in Community Based ProjectsA Practical Workbook to Protect, Promote and Support Breastfeeding in Community Based Projects pdf format
Health Canada, Ottawa, 2002
This workbook is intended to assist the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP) or similar community based prenatal projects to identify strategies and specific actions to protect, promote and support breastfeeding in a population health context. Population health recognizes the social, physical, economic and individual factors that influence a woman's decision to breastfeed, and her ultimate success with breastfeeding.



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Lancet 2008 Nutrition Series

The Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition

Author(s): Various
Authoring organization(s): The Lancet
Published: 2008

Summary: This document includes an executive summary and five articles aimed to increase awareness around maternal and child undernutrition and serve as a catalyst for national-level governments, nongovernmental organizations, and the international nutrition community to spur action and stimulate national interest, leadership, and commitment.

  • Series Comments: Maternal and child undernutrition: an urgent opportunity - Full Text | PDFpdf format

  • The challenge of hunger - Full Text | PDFpdf format

  • Series Papers - Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences
    Summary | Full Text | PDFpdf format

  • Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital - Summary | Full Text | PDFpdf format

  • What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival - Summary | Full Text | PDFpdf format

  • Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level - Summary | Full Text | PDFpdf format

  • Effective international action against undernutrition: why has it proven so difficult and what can be done to accelerate progress? - Summary | Full Text | PDFpdf format


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Facts for Feeding

Facts for Feeding (2006)
Linkages Project (gathered on this website)
This resource offers publications on recommended feeding and dietary practices to improve nutritional status. Policy makers, health care providers, and communicators can use these guidelines for developing messages and activities appropriate to local conditions.

Authoring organization(s): LINKAGES
Published: 2001–2006

Summary: These seven short leaflets provide general information on topics relevant to infant and young child nutrition for parents and health workers.

English: French: Spanish: Portuguese:


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Breastfeeding: Training Materials


Infant and young child feeding: Model Chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals (2009) Infant and young child feeding: Model Chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals (2009)
English [pdf 3.12Mb] pdf format - Spanish [pdf 1.2Mb] pdf format - World Health Organization
This Model Chapter brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire as part of their basic education. It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age – the most critical period for child nutrition after which sub-optimal growth is hard to reverse.

The Model Chapter is organized in nine sessions according to topic areas, with scientific references at the end of each section. These references include articles or WHO documents that provide evidence and further information about specific points. This document brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire. It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age.


BFHI Section 3: Breastfeding Promotion and Support in a Baby-friendly Hospital, a 20-hour course for maternity staff (2009)
Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care - World Health Organization, UNICEF
This course replaces the “18-Hour Course”. Can be used by facilities to strengthen the knowledge and skills of their staff towards successful implementation of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing.


BFHI Section 2: Strengthening and sustaining the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (2009)
Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care - World Health Organization, UNICEF
This course is an adaptation from WHO course "Promoting breast-feeding in health facilities: A short course for administrators and policy-makers". It can be used to orient hospital decisions-makers (directors, administrators, key managers, etc.) and policy-makers to the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and the positive impacts it can have and to gain their commitment to promoting and sustaining "Baby-friendly". The course material includes a Course Guide and eight Session Plans with handouts and PowerPoint slides. Two alternative session plans and materials for use in settings with high HIV prevalence have been included.



Infant and young child feeding counselling: an integrated courseInfant and young child feeding counselling: an integrated course (2006)
Geneva, Switzerland 2006

This 5-day course is designed to provide knowledge and skills to lay counsellors, community health workers, primary health care nurses and doctors, clinicians at first referral level and counsellors involved in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. It enables them to counsel and support mothers to carry out WHO/UNICEF recommended feeding practices for their infants and young children from birth up to 24 months of age, and to counsel and support HIV-infected mothers to choose and carry out an appropriate feeding method for the first two years of life. The course can be used to complement existing courses such as Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) .... Full information


Complementary feeding counselling: a training course (2004)


Breastfeeding counselling: A training course (1993)
Geneva, World Health Organization 1993
This course is designed to provide health workers with the skills needed to support mothers and their children to breastfeed optimally. It includes guides for the course director and trainers, a participant’s manual, a booklet with overhead figures, a slid book and annexes.

English:
Director's Guide [pdf 609kb]pdf format ¦ Trainer's Guide - Part 1 [pdf 1.1Mb]pdf format ¦ Trainer's Guide - Part 2 [pdf 1.1Mb]pdf format ¦ Trainer's Guide - Part 3 [pdf 1.2Mb]pdf format ¦ Trainer's Guide - Part 4 [pdf 403kb]pdf format ¦ Participant's Manual - Part 1 [pdf 738kb]pdf format ¦ Participant's Manual - Part 2 [pdf 569Mb]pdf format ¦ Participant's Manual - Part 3 [pdf 759kb] pdf format¦ Participant's Manual - Part 4 [pdf 324kb] pdf format

French:
Guide du Directeur [pdf 178kb]pdf format ¦ Guide du Formateur [pdf 1.16Mb] pdf format¦ Manuel des Participants [pdf 543kb] pdf format

Spanish:
Guía del Director [pdf 778kb] pdf format¦ Guía del Capacitador - Parte 1 [pdf 1.65Mbpdf format ¦ Guía del Capacitador - Parte 2 [pdf 1.44Mb]pdf format ¦ Guía del Capacitador - Parte 3 [pdf 1.38Mb]pdf format ¦ Guía del Capacitador - Parte 4 [pdf 585kb]pdf format ¦ Manual del Participante - Parte 1 [pdf 1.30Mb]pdf format ¦ Manual del Participante - Parte 2 [pdf 1.035Mb]pdf format ¦ Manual del Participante - Parte 3 [pdf 888kb]pdf format ¦ Manual del Participante - Parte 4 [pdf 606kb] pdf format

Russian:
Руководство для Директора [pdf 407kb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Преподавателей - Часть 1 [pdf 864kbpdf format¦ Руководство для Преподавателей - Часть 2 [pdf 780kb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Преподавателей - Часть 3 [pdf 873Kb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Преподавателей - Часть 4 [pdf 367kb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Участников - Часть 1 [pdf 446kb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Участников - Часть 2 [pdf 435Mb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Участников - Часть 3[pdf 562kb]pdf format ¦ Руководство для Участников - Часть 4 [pdf 606kb]pdf format


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Breastfeeding Guidelines

Breastfeeding counselling: A trainer's course; Director's guide (1993)
This resource is targeted toward health care workers for developing the clinical and interpersonal skills needed to support optimal breastfeeding practices. Guides for trainers and participants. - 52 pages - WHO - Englishdownloadpdf 609 kb

Guides for trainers and participants may be accessed online at www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/en/index.html



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Infant Feeding Counseling Materials


Authoring organization(s): Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
Published: 2006, 2008

Summary: These materials include clinical algorithms geared for health workers (not lay counselors) to use to counsel mothers and determine the most appropriate time to stop breastfeeding; an adaptation and finalization of the World Health Organization (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling: An Integrated Course, including new chapters on complementary feeding and country-specific recommendations; adaptations and local drawings/graphics inspired by the WHO counseling cards; and take-home brochures for mothers on exclusive breastfeeding, expressing breastmilk, and replacement feeding. The set also introduces a new follow-up form to be used at monthly postpartum visits for all infants of HIV-positive mothers.

English: French:




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Breastfeeding Policies

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Low Birth-weight Babies

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Labour and Birthing

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Lactation Management

Wellstart's Lactation Management Self-Study Modules, Level 1 The New Revised 4th Edition of Wellstart’s Lactation Management Self-Study Modules, Level 1 - English
pdf formatpdf 151 pages 1.9 mb - Edición en Español
This educational tool is downloadable without charge.

Visitors are invited but not required to help this tool to continue to be available by donating any amount they wish to Wellstart International, a US based 501(c) (3) non-profit organization that is compliant with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes.

Users are also requested to send your name, professional school that you are affiliated with and an e-mail address to [email protected] so that we may send you updates and alerts about relevant new materials and references.


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Breastfeeding and Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done - Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done October, 2009


Rehydration Project - Focus on diarrhoea, dehydration and oral rehydration


Call to Action on diarrhoeal disease


Breastfeeding and Diarrhea
This fact sheet aims to raise awareness about breastfeeding to prevent and treat diarrhea. One in a set of introductory resources, it provides stakeholders and policymakers in the world’s poorest countries with crucial information on a proven intervention in the fight against diarrheal disease.

This publication is part of the series Diarrheal disease fact sheets
PATH - Published: January 2008

English: Breastfeeding and Diarrhea160 KB PDFpdf format
Russian: Breastfeeding and Diarrhea [Russian] 242 KB PDFpdf format - Also known as: Грудное вскармливание и диарея

See also: Presentation on diarrheal disease and interventions
This presentation gives a concise overview of the problem of diarrheal disease, the solutions and the ways to take action on this issue. Use the full presentation, or pull content from the slides to incorporate them into your own presentations. This slide-set is a useful tool to visually share the message with your colleagues, elected officials, and your community. 2.5 mb powerpoint presentation


Persistent diarrhoea and breastfeeding (1997)

WHO Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development
This document outlines the protective properties of breast milk, particularly its role in preventing acute diarrhea and reducing persistent diarrheal episodes among infants and young children up to two years of age.
English 2 mb pdf



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Dialogue on Diarrhoea Links on Breastfeeding

Health Basics insert: Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding: helping to reduce the severity of diarrhoea
Breastfeeding in emergencies
Breastfeeding prevents infection
Breastfeeding promotion: the right start
Breastfeeding twins
Congratulations to the mothers
Exclusive breastfeeding (letter)
Exclusive breastfeeding
Extra drinks are unnecessary
Help for breastfeeding mothers
How to feed a baby who cannot breastfeed
How to help a woman to re-establish lactation
'I do not have enough milk.'
Passport to life: breastmilk banking in India
Perspectives on human milk banking
Portugal: rediscovering breastfeeding
Promoting breastfeeding in urban communities
Promoting the benefits of breastfeeding
Training health care workers to counsel breastfeeding mothers
WHO study
Women, work and breastfeeding
Zealous promotion of breastfeeding is not the answer (letter)



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Initiation of Breastfeeding

Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl
Impact of early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding on newborn deathsImpact of early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding on newborn deaths Publication Date: January 8, 2010
Alive & Thrive focuses on three technical areas to save lives, improve health and nutrition, and reduce stunting.
1. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within the first hour of birth)
2. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life
3. Timely, adequate, and appropriate complementary feeding
Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties
Marshall Klaus

Effect of early infant feeding practices on infection-specific neonatal mortality: an investigation of the causal links with observational data from rural Ghana


The Effect of Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Shortly After Birth on the Neurobehavioral Responses of the Term Newborn: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Sari Goldstein Ferber and Imad R. Makhoul

Effect of the Baby-Friendly Initiative on Infant Abandonment in a Russian Hospital

No Separation of Mother and Baby with Unlimited Opportunity for Breastfeeding



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Complementary Feeding


Complementary feeding counselling: a training course
under preparation

WABA Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action (2009)
 Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action6 pages 403 kb


Strengthening action to improve feeding of infants and young children 6-23 months of age in nutrition and child health programmes (2008)
Report of proceedings, Geneva, 6-9 October 2008


Guiding principles on feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age Guiding principles on feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age (2005)
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005

English [pdf 617kb]pdf format | French [pdf 617kb]pdf format | Spanish [pdf 3.21Mb]pdf format


Feeding the non-breastfed child 6–24 months of age (2004)
Geneva, World Health Organization, 8-10 March 2004

Full text [pdf 622kb]pdf format


Guiding Principles for Feeding Infants and Young Children During Emergencies (2004)
World Health Organization pdf

Summary: The guiding principles have been prepared to help prevent increased morbidity and mortality among infants and young children affected by an emergency. They serve as a basis for action and are intended to clarify that optimal practices for feeding infants and young children during emergencies are essentially the same as those that apply in other, more stable conditions. The document seeks to inform decision makers about key interventions and sustaining optimal infant and young child feeding during emergencies.


Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child Guiding Principles for the Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child (2003)
PAHO/WHO, Division of Health Promotion and Protection/Food and Nutrition Program, Washington DC, USA

Summary: This document distills information from discussions at several technical meetings and technical documents on complementary feeding. It covers the duration of breastfeeding and the age complementary foods should be introduced; continued breastfeeding during the 6–24 month period; responsive feeding; feeding during and after illness; the safe preparation and storage of complementary foods; the use of micronutrient supplements; and the amounts, types, frequency, and consistency of complementary foods.
English [pdf 5.83Mb]pdf format | French [pdf 2.0Mb]pdf format | Spanish [pdf 1.04Mb]pdf format


Special supplement of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin based on a WHO expert consultation on complementary feeding (2003)
Based on a World Health Organization Expert Consultation on Complementary Feeding (2003)
The United Nations University - Full text in English [pdf 1.70Mb] pdf format


Report of informal meeting to review and develop indicators for complementary feeding (2002)
World Health Organization - Washington, D.C, 3-5 December 2002
Full text [pdf 279kb] pdf format


Complementary feeding: Report of the global consultation, and summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed childComplementary feeding: Report of the global consultation (2001)
Summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child
Geneva, World Health Organization, 10-13 December 2001

Full text [pdf 1.22Mb]
pdf format


Complementary feeding: family foods for breastfed children (2000)
Geneva, World Health Organization

English [pdf 7.18Mb]pdf format - Japanese [pdf 5.52Mb]pdf format


Discussion paper 146: moving forward with complementary feeding
Indicators and research priorities


Complementary feeding (2000) - Family foods for breastfed children
World Health Organization


Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries (1998)
A review of current scientific knowledge
World Health Organization


Complementary feeding of infants and young children : report of a technical consultation (1998)
Joint WHO/UNICEF Consultation on Complementary Feeding, Montpellier, France, 28-30 November 1995


Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries:
A review of current scientific knowledge
WHO/UNICEF/ORSTOM/University of California at Davis
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998

English [pdf 13.7Mb]pdf format - Chinese [pdf 12.15Mb] pdf format


Cover [pdf 88kb]pdf format | Contents [pdf 461kb]pdf format | Chapter 1 [pdf 811kb]pdf format | Chapter 2 [pdf 2.12Mb]pdf format | Chapter 3 [pdf 2.05Mb]pdf format
Chapter 4 [pdf 1.74Mb]pdf format | Chapter 5 [pdf 703kb]pdf format | Chapter 6 [pdf 1.04Mb]pdf format | Chapter 7 [pdf 187kb]pdf format | Chapter 8 [pdf 1.79Mb]pdf format
Chapter 9 [pdf 764kb]pdf format | References [pdf 2.13Mb]pdf format | Annexes [pdf 249kb] pdf format




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Research


Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases in young children: Promotion of breastfeeding (1984)
This review analyzed the relative risks of non-breastfed and breastfed infants suffering diarrheal episodes and found that breastfeeding has a protective effect in reducing diarrheal disease incidence. The authors support promotion of breastfeeding through educational outreach to mothers. - 22 pages - Feachem R, Koblinsky M. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 62(2):271–291. - Englishdownloadpdf 860 kb


Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases in young children: Weaning education (1985)
This study evaluated whether education on weaning practices can improve nutritional status among children and therefore reduce diarrheal incidence and severity. - 14 pages
Ashworth A, Feachem R. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 63(6):1115–1127.
Englishdownloadpdf 644 kb




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Regional Publications

AMRO
Breastfeeding Report Card –– United States, 2009pdf format - CDC

EMRO
Report on the Regional Workshop on the Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (1994)

Cairo, Egypt, 19-23 September 1993

EURO
Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children (2003)
Guidelines for the WHO European region, with emphasis on the former Soviet countries
English [pdf 1Mb]pdf format - Russian [pdf 1.35Mb]pdf format

Development of a global strategy on infant and young child feeding : report on a WHO/UNICEF consultation for the WHO European Region (2001)
Budapest, Hungary 28 May-1 June 2001

Comparative analysis of implementation of the Innocenti Declaration in WHO European member states (1999)
Monitoring Innocenti targets on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding

Breastfeeding and healthy eating in pregnancy and lactation (1998)
Report on a WHO workshop, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, 5-8 October 1998

Breastfeeding : how to support success (1997)
A practical guide for health workers
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe

Workshop on Nutrition and Health Policy in Women and Children (1997)
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe 1997
Full text [pdf 1.3Mb] pdf format

Health workers and the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (1987)
Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, 31 October 1986

WPRO
Biregional Workshop on the Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes
(1994)
Manila, Philippines, 7-11 March 1994



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Peer-reviewed Articles

Special Issue Based on a World Health Organization Expert Consultationpdf format
Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 1, 2003
The Innocenti Declaration: progress and achievements, parts I, II and III
WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record, 1998, 73(5):25-32, 73(13):91-94 and 73(19):139-144
English and French: Part Ipdf format ¦ Part IIpdf format ¦ Part IIIpdf format

Information and attitudes among health personnel about early infant-feeding practices: World Health Organization's infant-feeding recommendationpdf format
WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record, 1995, 70(17):117-120

Special Issue Based on a World Health Organization Expert Consultationpdf format
Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 1, 2003



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Other Related Resources


Breastfeeding on the Worldwide Agenda: Findings from a landscape analysis on political commitment for programmes to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

Breastfeeding on the Worldwide AgendaUNICEF - April 2013 - There is compelling scientific evidence that optimal breastfeeding of infants under one year could prevent around a million deaths of children under-five in the developing world. Yet global rates of breastfeeding rates have remained stagnant. Why has strong scientific evidence about the benefits of breastfeeding not translated into political and donor commitments at the global level and in high burden countries? What can the global breastfeeding policy community do to augment attention and commitment to this priority?


The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding

Surgeon General's Call to Action
In the United States, most mothers want – and try – to breastfeed. Unfortunately, one mother's interest alone is not always enough to make breastfeeding possible. Rates of breastfeeding in the United States vary widely because of the multiple and complex barriers mothers face when starting and continuing to breastfeed. 

With this Call to Action, the Surgeon General seeks to make it possible for every mother who wishes to breastfeed to be able to do so by shifting how we as a nation think and talk about breastfeeding.

The information below summarizes some of the key findings and action steps from the Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding.



Action Guides Executive Summary Complete Report Additional Resources


WHO/UNICEF Joint Statement on home-based care of newbornsWHO/UNICEF Joint Statement on home-based care of newborns

Authors: WHO/UNICEF
Number of pages: 8
Publication date: 2009
Languages: English [pdf 259kb]French [pdf 269kb]  • Spanish [pdf 292kb]
WHO reference number: WHO/FCH/CAH/09.02

Every year, about 3.7 million babies die in the first four weeks of life (2004 estimates). Most of these newborns are born in developing countries and most die at home. Up to two-thirds of these deaths can be prevented if mothers and newborns receive known, effective interventions. A strategy that promotes universal access to antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and early postnatal care will contribute to sustained reduction in maternal and neonatal mortality.


While both mothers and newborns need care during the period after birth, this Statement focuses on the care of the newborn child, and the evidence for the same. Studies have shown that home-based newborn care interventions can prevent 30–60% of newborn deaths in high mortality settings under controlled conditions. Therefore, WHO and UNICEF now recommend home visits in the baby’s first week of life to improve newborn survival.

This Joint Statement includes information on how to care for the newborn child at home, specific recommendations for countries, and next steps.

The Statement recommends that home visits occur on days one and three of a newborn's life, and if possible, a third visit should take place before the end of the first week of life (day seven). During home visits, skilled health workers should perform the following measures:

  • promote and support early (within the first hour after birth) and exclusive breastfeeding;
  • help to keep the newborn warm (promoting skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant);
  • promote hygienic umbilical cord and skin care;
  • assess the baby for signs of serious health problems, and advise families to seek prompt medical care if necessary (danger signs include feeding problems, or if the newborn has reduced activity, difficult breathing, a fever, fits or convulsions, or feels cold);
  • encourage birth registration and timely vaccination according to national schedules; and
  • identify and support newborns that need additional care (e.g. those that are low-birth-weight, sick or have an HIV-infected mother).



WHO child growth standards and the identification of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children (2009)
A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund



Kenya Infant Feeding Brochures (2009)
Authoring organization(s): US Agency for International Development, PATH, Infant and Young Child Nutrition Project

Summary: These two brochures (originally developed by the Government of Kenya, UNICEF, and PATH) are being disseminated to mothers and families through IYCN and APHIA II Western facility and community-based activities. One brochure focuses on infant feeding during the first six months of life and the other focuses on infant feeding after 6 months.

Swahili:

WHO, UNICEF, WFP and UNHCR Consultation on the Dietary Management of Moderate Malnutrition in Under-5 Children (2008)


Nutrition Toolkit
The World Bank

Summary: This toolkit includes nine booklets on different nutrition topics, including nutrition project design, basic facts (nuts and bolts in nutrition), economic analysis, growth promotion (child), food supplements, food stamps, monitoring and evaluation, nutrition communications, and school nutrition.


Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices (2008)
Conclusions of a consensus meeting held 6–8 November 2007 in Washington D.C., USA


Inclusion of Fathers in an Intervention to Promote Breastfeeding: Impact on Breastfeeding Practices (2008)
Author(s): Susin LR, Giugliani ER
Summary: This article, published in the Journal of Human Lactation, revealed results of a controlled clinical trial in Brazil on the impact of a hospital-based breastfeeding education program for fathers.


Micronutrient Update (2007)pdf format
Author(s): Mukuria A, Kothari M
Authoring organization(s): Macro International for the US Agency for International Development
Summary: This Micronutrient Update, which continues where the May 2002 Micronutrient Update left off, presents information on women and children from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2005.


The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity (2007)
Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies


Call for support for appropriate infant and young child feeding in the current Asian emergency, and caution about unnecessary use of milk products (2005)
WHO, UNICEF, ICRC, IFRC statement


Consultative meeting to review evidence and research priorities in the management of ARI (2004)


Community-based strategies for breastfeeding promotion and support in developing countries (2003)


Discussion Paper 146: Moving forward with complementary feeding (2003)
Indicators and research priorities


Breastfeeding and maternal medication (2002)
Recommendations for drugs in the eleventh WHO model list of essential drugs


Mastitis: causes and management (2000)


Nutrition Essentials: A Guide for Program Managerspdf format (1999)
Author(s): Sanghvi T - Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival

Summary: This is a reference manual for major nutrition interventions to improve maternal and infant and young child nutrition. The document provides background information on the role of nutrition in child survival, priority nutrition interventions, how to strengthen and integrate nutrition in district health services, how to work in the community and suggested community activities, and tools and instruments to support nutrition interventions.


Breastfeeding and maternal tuberculosis (1998)
A statement prepared jointly by the Divisions of Child Health and Development (CHD), the Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB), Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) and Reproductive Health (Technical Support ) (RHT) of the World Health Organization


Relactation: review of experience and recommendations for practice (1998)


Hypoglycaemia of the newborn (1997)
Review of the literature


Hepatitis B and breastfeeding (1996)
A statement prepared jointly by the Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) and the Divisions of Child Health and Development (CHD), and Reproductive Health (Technical Support ) (RHT) World Health Organization


Information and attitudes among health personnel about early infant-feeding practices: World Health Organization's infant-feeding recommendation
Weekly Epidemiological Record, 1995, 70(17):117-120 - Geneva, World Health Organization, 1995 - Full textpdf format [pdf 1.04Mb]pdf format


Indicators for assessing breastfeeding practices (1991)


Infant feeding the physiological basis (1989)

Bulletin of the World Health Organization,
Supplement to Volume 67, 1989


ZVITAMBO Infant Feeding Materials
ZVITAMBO, Ministry of Health Zimbabwe



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Posters

Summary: These posters from ZVITAMBO contain key, consistent messages that are geared towards mothers, health workers, and other family and community members. The posters are supplemented by simple brochures.
Breastfeeding: the First Step to Lifelong HealthBreastfeeding: the First Step to Lifelong Healthpdf format

Breastfeeding: A Happy Family AffairBreastfeeding: A Happy Family Affairpdf format

Frequently Asked Questions on BreastfeedingFrequently Asked Questions on Breastfeedingpdf format

Expression and storage of breastmilkExpression and storage of breastmilkpdf format

Working Mothers and BreastfeedingWorking Mothers and Breastfeedingpdf format

The Basic Techniques of BreastfeedingThe Basic Techniques of Breastfeedingpdf format

Common Breastfeeding Problems & their SolutionsCommon Breastfeeding Problems & their Solutionspdf format

Introduction of Solid FoodsIntroduction of Solid Foodspdf format

Especially for the EmployersEspecially for the Employerspdf format


Posters: Breastfeeding. The Essence of Life pdf 438 kb

What everyone should know about breastfeeding*
“Improved breastfeeding alone could save the lives of more than 3,500 children every day, more than any other preventive intervention”
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding © UNICEF

* Based on Facts for Life, published by UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP and the World Bank Breastfeeding. The Essence of LifeBreastfeeding. The Essence of LifeBreastfeeding. The Essence of Life



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The following publications are from LINKAGES Project. Click here for a complete list of their publications.

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24 Pages
A Guide for Calculating the Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)
The guide offers detailed guidance for users of the “Policy Analysis Tool for Calculating the Health, Child Spacing, and Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)” and identifies the main features of the tool’s seven worksheets and the basis for calculations.

Author(s): J. Ross, V. Aguayo, H. Stiefel

Downloads Available:
 English


 
thumbnail graphic A Policy Analysis Tool for Calculating the Health, Child Spacing, and Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (BOB)
This spreadsheet tool consists of seven worksheets: 1) introduction, 2) assumptions, 3) breastmilk production, 4) health, 5) survival, 6) fertility, and 7) summary. The spreadsheets estimate the effects of breastfeeding on a variety of functional outcomes with public policy significance.

Author(s): J. Ross, V. Aguayo, H. Stiefel

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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36 Pages
Antenatal, Postnatal and Child Health Book
This book was developed in Zambia to be given to pregnant and breastfeeding mothers at antenatal and child health clinics.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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81 Pages
Behavior Change Communication for Improved Infant Feeding - Training Module
Trains trainers in behavior change communication skills, training techniques, and infant feeding. Includes field visits, practice training, and action planning exercises.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
thumbnail graphic Better Breastfeeding, Healthier Lives
Published by the INFO Report, this report describes how programs and providers can help women improve breastfeeding practices.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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8 Pages
Birth, Initiation of Breastfeeding, and the First Seven Days after Birth - Facts for Feeding
Identifies actions health care providers can take during the first week postpartum to help the mother and baby establish and maintain good breastfeeding practices.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
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15 Pages
Bolivia - Breastfeeding, Complementary Feeding, Maternal Nutrition and LAM Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were developed in collaboration with many partners for the Altiplanto region of Bolivia.

Contributing Partner(s): Caritas Colivaiana, Plan International Bolivia, USAID, Procosi, Servir, Project Concern, Desarolla Juvenil Comunitario, Freedom from Hunger, Aprosar, Ministerio de Salud y Prevension Social

Downloads Available:
 Spanish


 
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6 Pages
Breastfeeding and HIV/ AIDS- Frequently Asked Questions
Reviews the latest information on the transmission of HIV via breastfeeding and provides programmatic guidance for field activities.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
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6 Pages
Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutrition- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on the impact of maternal nutrition on breastmilk quantity and quality, the nutritional requirements of lactating women, the impact of breastfeeding on maternal health, and implications of this information for programs.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
thumbnail graphic Breastfeeding Questions Answered: A Guide for Providers
This publication produced by the INFO Project provides answers to questions frequently asked about breastfeeding.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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8 Pages
Breastmilk: A Critical Source of Vitamin A for Infants and Young Children- Facts for Feeding
Recommends national, community, and household level practices to improve vitamin A status of infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women.

Contributing Partner(s): Helen Keller International, HKI/ Africa, the MOST Project

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
thumbnail graphic Celebrating Innocenti 1990-2005: Achievements, challenges and future imperatives
This document was prepared for the 15th anniversary celebration of the Innocenti declaration. It assesses the progress in achieving the Innocenti targets, examines the current challenges and reinforces the need to act rapidly in support of infant and young child feeding.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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30 Pages
Community-Based Strategies for Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in Developing Countries
WHO and LINKAGES examine the role of communities and community-based resource persons in providing support to mothers who breastfeed. This report is based on a review of the literature and an analysis of three projects; it assesses the impact of interventions, the mechanisms through which behaviors can be changed, and the factors that are necessary to maximize and sustain the benefits of interventions. (Hard copies of this publication can be obtained by e-mailing WHO at [email protected])

Author(s): A. Morrow, WHO
Contributing Partner(s): LINKAGES

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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40 Pages
Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants to Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature
Summarizes evidence-based literature regarding the best age to introduce complementary (semi-solid and solid) foods into the diet of the breastfed infant.

Author(s): A. Naylor, ed. and A. Morrow, co-ed.
Contributing Partner(s): Wellstart International and the LINKAGES Project

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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70 Pages
Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa
Identifies essential nutrition and health actions for pregnant and lactating women that contribute to the achievement of five nutrition-related outcomes.

Contributing Partner(s): The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care at Makerere University in Uganda, MOST Project, SARA Project, SANA Project

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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8 Pages
Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa (Summary)
Summary of 70 page paper, Essential Health Sector Actions to Improve Maternal Nutrition in Africa.

Contributing Partner(s): The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care at Makerere University in Uganda, MOST Project, SARA Project, SANA Project

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French


 
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57 Pages
Essential Nutrition Actions - A Four Day Training Course for Planners & Managers of Health & Nutrition Programs in Indonesia: Training Guide
The purpose of this training is to prepare program managers and pre-service instructors to train service providers in an action-oriented approach to improve the nutrition of infants, young children and women. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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12 Pages
Ethiopia - Counseling Cards for Fathers
These counseling cards were developed for use with fathers, to encourage their support of breastfeeding and maternal nutrition. They tell fathers what they can do during pregnancy and breastfeeding to support the health of their wives.

Contributing Partner(s): Ethiopian MOH, CARE, CRS, World Vision, REST, SC-USA, Concern, EHNRI

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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4 Pages
Exclusive Breastfeeding: The Only Water Source Young Infants Need - Frequently Asked Questions
Discusses the nutritional and health consequences of giving infants water during the first six months, and the role of breastfeeding in meeting an infant’s water requirements. Also available in Russian

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
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4 Pages
Experience LINKAGES: Cost & Effectiveness
Describes the process LINKAGES' Madagascar program undertook to link the costs of its interventions with the resultant changes in infant feeding behaviors.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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6 Pages
Experience LINKAGES: Mainstreaming
Describes what mainstreaming means and how mainstreaming lends itself to the replication, scale up, and sustainability of project innovations.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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6 Pages
Experience LINKAGES: Policy Dialogue
Describes the conceptual framework for policy change, identifies the main policy issues related to IYCF, discusses LINKAGES strategies to address policy dialogue challenges, and summarizes lessons learned.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
thumbnail graphic EXPO LINKAGES
Please click on the Technical Initiatives link above to view slide presentations from EXPO LINKAGES.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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8 Pages
Feeding Infants and Young Children During and After Illness
This Facts for Feeding describes optimal feeding behaviors during and after illness, challenges of feeding during these times, special considerations for common illnesses, and guidelines for counseling caregivers.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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8 Pages
Feeding Low Birthweight Babies - Facts for Feeding
This most recent publication in the Facts for Feeding series provides guidance on breastmilk feeding options to ensure that low birth weight babies receive the attention needed to survive, grow, and develop.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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58 Pages
Formative Research for Infant Feeding Programs: Skills and Practice for Infant and Young Child Feeding and Maternal Nutrition
Trains participants to conduct formative research using effective communication skills in order to collect information to plan and improve programs.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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16 Pages
Ghana - Breastfeeding & Infant Feeding Counseling Cards
This set of eight counseling cards was developed to address infant feeding problems found in northern Ghana. For further information on the development of messages and materials in northern Ghana, see this case study (in PDF).

Contributing Partner(s): MOH Ghana, CRS, UNICEF, Ghana Red Cross

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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18 Pages
Ghana - Breastfeeding & Infant Feeding Counseling Cards for Grandmothers and TBAs
These counseling cards were developed to share breastfeeding and infant feeding messages with grandmothers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Ghana.

Contributing Partner(s): Ghana MOH, CRS, UNICEF, Ghana Red Cross

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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4 Pages
Guidelines for Appropriate Complementary Feeding of Breastfed Children 6-24 months of Age
Provides feeding guidelines for children 6 to 24 months of age.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
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74 Pages
Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research
Summarizes available research on specific interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors.

Author(s): C. Green

Downloads Available:
 English


 
thumbnail graphic Improving Breastfeeding Practices on a Broad Scale at the Community Level: Success Stories From Africa and Latin America
Large-scale community-level behavior change programs designed to improve breastfeeding practices were implemented in Bolivia, Ghana, and Madagascar. This study describes success stories from these various areas.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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38 Pages
India - CARE Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards produced by CARE were used for house visits in India.

Contributing Partner(s): CARE

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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35 Pages
India - CRS Counseling Cards
This set of 15 13x10" counseling cards was used during community breastfeeding promotion activities in India by CRS.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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25 Pages
India - CRS Counseling Cards
This set of 11 counseling cards in Hindi was used by CRS during community breastfeeding promotion activities. No English translation is available.

Contributing Partner(s): CRS

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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38 Pages
India - World Vision Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were developed in collaboration with World Vision to provide age-specific messages on infant feeding. No English translation is available.

Contributing Partner(s): World Vision

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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156 Pages
Infant and Young Child Feeding: A Tool for Assessing National Practices, Policies and Programmes
This three-part tool is designed to help users assess the strengths and weaknesses of policies and programs for protecting, promoting and supporting optimal feeding practices, and determine where improvements may be needed to meet the aim and objectives of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate the tool should be addressed to WHO Publications, email: [email protected] (See our other program tools)

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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56 Pages
Infant Feeding in Emergencies, Module 1: for emergency relief staff
This infant feeding in emergencies module prepares all emergency relief staff, both international and locally recruited, to safeguard maternal and child health in emergencies by ensuring appropriate infant feeding. It is appropriate for decision-makers, regional managers, logistics officers, camp administrators, and all whose work involves care for mothers and children. LINKAGES contributed to the interagency working group on Infant Feeding in Emergencies and the UN Sub Committee on Nutrition Working Group on Emergencies to prepare this module which can be obtained by visiting the Emergency Nutrition Network website,http://www.ennonline.net/ife/index.html.

Contributing Partner(s): UN Sub Committee on Nutrition Working Group on Emergencies

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
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59 Pages
Infant Feeding in Emergencies, Module 2 version 1.0
This module aims to provide health and nutrition workers with the basic knowledge and skills to help both breastfeeding and artificially feeding women. The intended audience is health and nutrition workers who are directly concerned with the care of mothers/caregivers and infants. The module can be obtained by visiting the Emergency Nutrition Network website, http://www.ennonline.net/ife/module2/index.html.

Contributing Partner(s): ENN, IBFAN, Terre des hommes, UNICEF, UNHCR, WHO, WFP

Downloads Available:
No downloads available


 
thumbnail graphic Infant Feeding Key Indicator Monitoring Manual
This manual is designed to permit organizations to carry out routine monitoring of key infant feeding behaviors: Exclusive Breastfeeding, Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding, and Timely Complementary Feeding.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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105 Pages
Interventions to Improve Breastfeeding Behaviors: Detailed Summaries of 51 Studies
Provides brief summaries of the available research from 51 studies on specific interventions intended to influence four key breastfeeding behaviors.

Author(s): C. Green

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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39 Pages
Jordan - Breastfeeding & LAM Flipchart
.

Contributing Partner(s): Jordanian Ministry of Health

Downloads Available:
 Arabic


 
thumbnail graphic LINKAGES Country Programs: What Worked and How We Did It
This plenary presentation from EXPO LINKAGES highlights activities from the project's various country programs.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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131 Pages
LINKAGES Zambia 1997-2005 Final Report
A full report on LINKAGES infant feeding and HIV/AIDS programs in Zambia.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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59 Pages
Madagascar Story
This publication documents the major elements of the LINKAGES-AED program in Madagascar. It is useful to planners and programmers interested in improving breastfeeding and other nutritional practices at large scale.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French


 
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63 Pages
Manual de Lactancia Materna
This Spanish manual serves as a reference and counseling guide for health care personnel and community health workers promoting breastfeeding and LAM, a postpartum contraceptive method for women who breastfeed.

Contributing Partner(s): Institute for Reproductive Health, La Leche League Honduras, UNICEF, USAID, Wellstart International

Downloads Available:
 Spanish


 
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6 Pages
Meeting the Iron Requirements of Infants and Young Children
Discusses the causes and consequences of iron deficiencies in infants and young children (less than 2 years old) and recommends actions to prevent and treat it.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 Portuguese


 
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4 Pages
Mother-to-Mother Support for Breastfeeding- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on a support group method where experienced breastfeeding mothers model optimal breastfeeding practices, share information and experiences, and offer support to other women in an atmosphere of trust and respect. (This publication is also available in Russian.)

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish


 
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48 Pages
Mother-to-Mother Support Group Methodology and Infant Feeding (Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding): Training of Trainers
Prepares participants to train health care providers or community-based volunteers to organize and facilitate mother-to-mother support groups on infant feeding. To view the Chinese version of this training module, click here. (The Chinese version was translated by Chia-Wen Lee, PhD, Huei-Man Lai, MA, and Shu-Fang Wang, MSc.)

Downloads Available:
 English 
 Spanish


 
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8 Pages
Nacimiento, iniciación de la lactancia materna y los primeros siete días después del nacimiento- Datos importantes sobre alimentacíon
Aproximadamente entre una cuarta parte y la mitad de las muertes durante el primer año de vida ocurren en la primera semana. Muchas de las intervenciones que mejorarán la salud y la supervivencia de los recién nacidos tienen un costo relativamente bajo y es factible implementarlas. Una de ellas es la lactancia materna inmediata y exclusiva. Esta intervención también puede ayudar a las mujeres al minimizar la hemorragia que tiene lugar inmediatamente después del parto, una de las causas más comunes de mortalidad materna.

Downloads Available:
 Spanish


 
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33 Pages
Nepal - Maternal Nutrition & Breastfeeding Counseling Cards
These counseling cards were used in Nepal to promote messages on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and maternal nutrition.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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20 Pages
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with High HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of high HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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15 Pages
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with Low HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of low HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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182 Pages
Quantifying the Benefits of Breastfeeding: A Summary of the Evidence
Presents an annotated bibliography of more than 180 studies that provide scientific and epidemiological evidence in support of the World Health Organization’s and UNICEF’s Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. (The printed Spanish version of this publication is not currently available. La versión impreso en español no está disponible ahora.)

Author(s): N. León-Cava, J. Ross, C. Lutter, L. Martin
Contributing Partner(s): Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)

Downloads Available:
 English 
 Spanish


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaire from BOLIVIA Community Assessment of Infant Feeding Practices
LINKAGES and its PROCOSI partners in Bolivia used this survey form to gather information on infant feeding practices among mothers of infants less than 12 months old.

Downloads Available:
 Spanish


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ETHIOPIA Community Assessment of Essential Nutrition Actions and Other Health Behaviors
LINKAGES and the ESHE Project used these 4 survey forms in Ethiopia for household interviews and interviews with mothers of infants 0–11 months, 12–23 months, and 24–59 months old. The program in Ethiopia was within a broad nutrition and child survival context which is reflected in the surveys.

Downloads Available:
English


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from GHANA Community Assessment of Breastfeeding Knowledge and Behavior
LINKAGES and its partners in Ghana collected information on infant feeding knowledge and practice among mothers of infants less than 12 months old, fathers, and grandmothers.

Downloads Available:
English


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from MADAGASCAR Community Assessment of Essential Nutrition Actions and Other Health Behaviors
LINKAGES and its partners in Madagascar developed questionnaires for mothers of children 0–5 months, 6–11 months, 12–23 months old. The program in Madagascar was within a broad nutrition and child survival context which is reflected in the surveys.

Downloads Available:
English 
French 
Malagasy


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from TANZANIA Integrated PMTCT Community Survey
LINKAGES and its partners in Tanzania developed a questionnaire for mothers of infants less than 12 months old on infant feeding practices, reproductive health, and HIV. A questionnaire for adults in the community focused on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and practices; use of HIV counseling and testing services, and attitudes on mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Downloads Available:
English


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Baseline Prior to PMTCT Media Campaign
LINKAGES and the District Health Management Board in Zambia conducted a baseline survey prior to launching Act Now!, a media campaign. The survey form was used with mothers of infants less than 12 months old and included questions about antenatal care and infant feeding practices and knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Downloads Available:
English


 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Integrated Infant Feeding and HIV Counseling Program
As part of the Ndola Demonstration Project, LINKAGES developed clinic and community-based surveys to gather information on infant feeding practices, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and use of HIV services. Questionnaires were designed for use with pregnant women, mothers of infants 0–5 months and 6–11 months of age, and adults in the community.

Downloads Available:
English


 
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35 Pages
Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices to Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition
This paper identifies a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices to break cycles of poor health and nutrition that pass from generation to generation. It also provides the scientific evidence to support the recommendations.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish


 
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4 Pages
Recommended Practices to Improve Infant Nutrition during the First Six Months- Facts for Feeding
Provides infant feeding guidelines for the first six months of life. Provides guidelines for activities appropriate to local conditions.

Downloads Available:
 English 
 French 
 Spanish 
 Portuguese


 
thumbnail graphic Seeing is believing: Mobilizing community support for breastfeeding in Ghana
This article was originally published in nutrition magazine and is included here with permission of NutritionWorks, which retains full copyright. The magazine is available at the nutrition website 

Downloads Available:
English


 
thumbnail graphic Successfully Scaling-Up Exclusive Breastfeeding: Lessons from Madagascar
This first CHNRI Research Brief reports on LINKAGES' activities in Madagascar that uses an integrated approach to improve breastfeeding rates.

Downloads Available:
 English


 
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6 Pages
The Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)- Frequently Asked Questions
Focuses on LAM as a modern, temporary family planning method for women who breastfeed, and is addressed to the child survival and family planning health care providers.

Downloads Available:
English 
French 
Spanish


 
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105 Pages
Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning: Application for Training in Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Related Topics
The purpose of this training module is to strengthen the capacity of facilitators/trainers to plan, organize, and conduct training of health care workers who implement programs in infant and young child feeding, essential nutrition actions, the lactational amennorhea method, and/or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Downloads Available:
English


 
thumbnail graphic USAID's Investment in IYCF: LINKAGES Achievements and Results
The opening plenary presenation of EXPO LINKAGES.

Downloads Available:
English


 
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54 Pages
Using the Essential Nutrition Actions to Improve the Nutrition of Women and Children in Ethiopia, including under Situations of Emergencies and HIV and AIDS: Training Guide
This Trainer’s Guide is intended to equip senior health instructors and planners in Ethiopia with the basic theory and technical update to design and implement the Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) approach, or to train others to do so. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

Downloads Available:
English


 
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4 Pages
World LINKAGES: Bolivia
Describes LINKAGES' infant and young child feeding activities with PROCOSI, a network of local and international health organizations in Bolivia (1998-2003).

Downloads Available:
English


 
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4 Pages
World LINKAGES: Ethiopia
Describes LINKAGES' essential nutrition actions program with the Ministry of Health and other local partners in Ethiopia.

Downloads Available:
English


 
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4 Pages
World LINKAGES: Ghana
Describes LINKAGES' breastfeeding promotion and protection activities with the Ghana Health Service and other local partners in Ghana (1997-2004).

Downloads Available:
English


 
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4 Pages
World LINKAGES: Zambia
Describes LINKAGES' infant feeding and HIV programs with central and district health, AIDS, and nutrition agencies in Zambia.

Downloads Available:
English


 





  16 June, 2014
 
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