Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl
Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl
 
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Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and HIV

The ten steps to successful breastfeeding for settings where HIV is prevalent: Issues to consider
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The ten steps to successful breastfeeding and the Global HIV & AIDS epidemic
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HIV and infant Feeding Counselling - WHO
A training course

Authors: World Health Organization; UNAIDS; UNICEF
Publication date: 2000
Languages: English, French, Russian, Spanish
WHO reference number: WHO/FCH/CAH/00.2-5 / UNAIDS/99.55F-58F / UNICEF/PD/NUT/(J)00-1-4

HIV and infant Feeding Counselling English (Director's guide) [pdf 1.67Mb] pdf format
English (Trainer's guide) [pdf 3.31Mb] pdf format
English (Participants' manual) [pdf 1.72Mb] pdf format
English (Overhead figures) [pdf Mb] pdf format

French (Director's guide) [pdf 302kb] pdf format
French (Trainer's guide) [pdf 3.12Mb] pdf format
French (Participants' manual) [pdf 1.57Mb] pdf format

Russian (Director's guide) [pdf 731kb] pdf format
Russian (Trainer's guide) [pdf 2.34Mb] pdf format
Russian (Participants' manual) [pdf 1.24Mb] pdf format

Spanish (Director's guide) [pdf 289Kb] pdf format
Spanish (Trainer's guide) [pdf 1.25Mb] pdf format
Spanish (Participants' manual) [pdf 699Kb]pdf format


Overview

This course is designed to provide knowledge and skills to health workers who work with mothers and babies in areas with high prevalence of HIV infections. It enables health workers to counsel HIV-positive women about infant feeding decisions, assisting them to feed their infants as effectively and safely as possible in their circumstances.




HIV and Iinfant Feeding Counselling Tools - WHO

HIV and Iinfant Feeding Counselling Tools Authors: Thomas, Elizabeth.; Piwoz, Ellen G.; World Health Organization; UNICEF; USAID
Number of pages: 42 + 95
Publication date: 2005; 2008
Languages: English, French, Spanish
ISBN: 92 4 159249 4; 92 4 159301 6; 92 4 159653 4

Counselling cards (English) [pdf 662kb] pdf format
Reference guide (English) [pdf 1.48Mb] pdf format
Orientation guide for trainers (English) [pdf 338kb] pdf format

Counselling cards (French) [pdf 887kb] pdf format
Reference guide (French) [pdf 7.62Mb] pdf format
Orientation guide for trainers (French) [pdf 1.59Mb] pdf format

Counselling cards (Spanish) [pdf 903kb] pdf format
Reference guide (Spanish) [pdf 6.2 MB] pdf format
Orientation guide for trainers (Spanish) [pdf 301kb]pdf format

Overview

These tools have been created to help health workers before, during and after a counselling session so that they can better support HIV-positive mothers.

Counsellors using the tools should have received specific training through such courses as the WHO/UNICEF Breastfeeding Counselling: A training course and the WHO/UNICEF/UNAIDS HIV and Infant Feeding Counselling: A training course, or the newly developed integrated infant and young child feeding counselling course. This latter course combines breastfeeding, complementary feeding and HIV and infant feeding counselling training.

The tools consist of the following parts:

  • Counselling cards (ISBN 92 4 159249 4) that describes the counselling process. Infant feeding counsellors should use the flipchart during counselling sessions with HIV-positive pregnant women and/or mothers. The cards need local adaptation to a) identify the most acceptable/feasible feeding options from 0 to 6 months, and b) identify the most suitable foods to cover nutrient requirements from 6 to 24 months.
  • Take-home flyers that explain how to practice safer infant feeding, according to the mother's decision. The counsellor should use the relevant flyer to teach the mother, and she can then use it as a reminder at home.
  • A Reference guide (ISBN 92 4 159301 6) that provides more technical and practical details than the counseling cards. Counsellors can use it as a handbook.
  • An Orientation guide (ISBN 92 4 159653 4) that suggests ways for health care managers to train infant feeding counsellors on how to use these tools.




HIV and infant feeding: framework for priority action HIV and infant feeding: framework for priority action
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003
Brochure [pdf 766kb]pdf format | Chinese [pdf 492kb]pdf format | English [pdf 748kb]pdf format | French [pdf 658kb]pdf format | Portuguese [pdf 775kb]pdf format | Spanish [pdf 743kb]pdf format


HIV and infant feeding: guidelines for decision-makers HIV and infant feeding: guidelines for decision-makers
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003
English [pdf 1.42Mb]pdf format | French [pdf 1.42Mb]pdf format | Spanish [pdf 647Kb]pdf format


HIV and infant feeding: a guide for health-care managers and supervisors HIV and infant feeding: a guide for health-care managers and supervisors
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003
English [pdf 1.41Mb]
pdf format | French [pdf 1.52Mb]pdf format | Spanish [pdf 636Kb] pdf format


HIV and infant feeding: a review of HIV transmission through breastfeeding
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003
English (2007) [pdf 834kb]pdf format
| French (2004) [pdf 791kb] pdf format | Spanish (2004) [pdf 541kb]pdf format

 



HIV and Infant Feeding


Rapid advice: revised WHO principles and recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV – November 2009


Rapid advice: revised WHO principles and recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV – November 2009
Authors: World Health Organization
Number of pages: 28
Publication date: 2009
Languages: English
ISBN: 9789241598873


Overview

On 30 November, the eve of World AIDS Day, the WHO released new recommendations on treatment, prevention and infant feeding in the context of HIV, based on the latest scientific evidence.

The new recommendations call for earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for adults and adolescents, the delivery of more patient-friendly antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), and prolonged use of ARVs to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. And, for the first time, WHO recommends that HIV-positive mothers or their infants take ARVs while breastfeeding to prevent transmission.

Related links

Rapid advice: antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents

Rapid advice: use of antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants






HIV transmission through breastfeeding (2008)
A review of available evidence - update 2007

HIV transmission through breastfeeding (2008) Authors: World Health Organization, UNICEF, UNAIDS, UNFPA
Number of pages: 54
Publication date: 2008 (English - update version), 2005 (French), 2004 (Spanish)
Languages: English, French, Spanish
ISBN: 978 92 4 159659 6

English (2008)[pdf 835kb] pdf format
French (2005)[pdf 721kb] pdf format
Spanish (2004)[pdf 541kb]pdf format


Overview

This publication is an update of the review of current knowledge on HIV transmission through breastfeeding, with a focus on information made available between 2001 and 2007. It reviews scientific evidence on the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding, the impact of different feeding options on child health outcomes, and conceivable strategies to reduce HIV transmission through breastfeeding with an emphasis on the developing world.





Facts for life
(2010) - Breastfeeding - HIV - Safe Motherhood - Newborn Health
The handbook, Facts for Life, provides vital messages and information for mothers, fathers, other family members and caregivers and communities to use in changing behaviours and practices that can save and protect the lives of children and help them grow and develop to their full potential.


PMTCT strategic vision 2010–2015 - (2010)
WHO - Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV to reach the UNGASS and Millennium Development Goals


HIV and infant feeding: Update (2007)
Based on the technical consultation held on behalf of the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on Prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, Mothers and their Infants, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-27 October 2006


HIV and infant feeding: new evidence and programmatic experience (2007)
Report of a technical consultation held on behalf of the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on Prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, Mother and their Infants, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-27 October 2006


HIV and infant feeding: implementation of guidelines
A report of the UNICEF-UNAIDS-WHO Technical Consultation on HIV and Infant Feeding
Geneva, World Health Organization, 20-22 April 1998 (currently under revision)


WHO HIV and infant feeding technical consultation - consensus statement
(2007)
Held on behalf of the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on Prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, mothers and their infants


Home-modified animal milk for replacement feeding: is it feasible and safe? (2006)
Discussion paper prepared for HIV and infant feeding technical consultation, 25-27 October 2006


HIV and infant feeding counselling (2005)
From research to practice


Update on dissemination and use of new and revised HIV and infant feeding publications (2005)


UNICEF and WHO call for stronger support for the implementation of the joint United Nations HIV and infant feeding framework (2004)
Full text [pdf 117kb] pdf format


HIV and infant feeding data analysis
(2004)
Workshop report


HIV and infant feeding generic slide set (2004)


UNICEF and WHO joint statement on HIV and infant feeding (2004)


What are the options? (2004)
Using formative research to adapt global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context


Breastfeeding and replacement feeding practices in the context of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (2001)
An assessment tool for research






The Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project maintains a collection of useful resources on maternal nutrition, infant and young child feeding, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and more. Our collection offers a variety of high-quality training materials, publications, web links, and other helpful resources.

Behavior change communicationBreastfeedingComplementary feedingGeneral nutritionInfant feeding and emergencies Infant feeding and HIVMaternal nutritionMonitoring and evaluationMultilanguage resources






The following Breastfeeding and HIV publications are from LINKAGES Project.
Click here for a complete list of their publications.



“Act Now!” Campaign in Zambia

Authoring organization(s): LINKAGES— Zambia - Published: 2004–2005

Summary: These brochures, created as part of the LINKAGES “Act Now” Campaign in Zambia, offer standardized messages on infant feeding and HIV for a variety of audiences, including mothers, youth, and health workers. Topics include prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, HIV testing and counseling, and optimal infant and young child feeding behaviors.

Booklet: Brochure: Poster: Topic(s): Behavior change communication, breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV, maternal nutrition
Type(s): Booklet, brochure, poster
Region: Sub-Saharan Africa





Challenging Assumptions: Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

Authoring organization(s): Program for Appropriate Technology in Health - Published: 2008

Summary: This policy brief discusses the benefits of breastfeeding in light of the risk of perinatal HIV transmission.

Challenging Assumptions: Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDSpdf format

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV
Type(s): Newsletter
Region: Global




HIV and Infant Feeding Technical Consultation: Consensus Statement

Authoring organization(s): Inter-Agency Task Team on Prevention of HIV Infections in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and Their Infants, World Health Organization
Published: 2006

Summary: This consensus statement is the product of the World Health Organization HIV and Infant Feeding Technical Consultation held on behalf of the Inter-Agency Task Team on Prevention of HIV Infections in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and Their Infants in Geneva, Switzerland, October 25–27, 2006. It outlines new evidence and research on HIV transmission through breastfeeding, new evidence on morbidity and mortality, improving young child infant feeding practices, new program data, and recommendations. Also included below are the reference documents that informed the consensus statement.

English: Consensus Statementpdf format - French: Consensus Statementpdf format





Infant Feeding Counseling Materials

Authoring organization(s): Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
Published: 2006, 2008

Summary: These materials include clinical algorithms geared for health workers (not lay counselors) to use to counsel mothers and determine the most appropriate time to stop breastfeeding; an adaptation and finalization of the World Health Organization (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling: An Integrated Course, including new chapters on complementary feeding and country-specific recommendations; adaptations and local drawings/graphics inspired by the WHO counseling cards; and take-home brochures for mothers on exclusive breastfeeding, expressing breastmilk, and replacement feeding. The set also introduces a new follow-up form to be used at monthly postpartum visits for all infants of HIV-positive mothers.

English: French: Topic(s): Behavior change communication, breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV, monitoring and evaluation, non-English
Type(s): Brochure, job aid, technical report, training guide
Region: Global




Kenya Infant Feeding Assessment: Eastern and Western Provinces

Author(s): Israel-Ballard K, Waithaka M, Greiner T
Authoring organization(s): IYCN, PATH
Published: 2009

Summary: This study was conducted in the Eastern and Western Provinces in Kenya in 2008 to assess the experiences of HIV-infected mothers’ and their infants’ during the time they were stopping breastfeeding.

Kenya Infant Feeding Assessment: Eastern and Western Provincepdf format

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV
Type(s): Technical report
Region: Global




Role of Breastfeeding Cessation in Mediating the Relationship between Maternal HIV Disease Stage and Increased Child Mortality among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children

Author(s): Fox MP, Brooks DR, et al.
Published: 2009

Summary: This study, published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, analyzed the role of breastfeeding cessation and its effect on mortality of HIV-exposed children.

Role of Breastfeeding Cessation in Mediating the Relationship between Maternal HIV Disease Stage and Increased Child Mortality among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children

Topic(s): Breastfeeding, HIV and infant feeding
Type(s): Journal article
Region: Global




ZVITAMBO Infant Feeding Materials
Authoring organization(s): ZVITAMBO, Ministry of Health Zimbabwe

Summary: These posters from ZVITAMBO contain key, consistent messages that are geared towards mothers, health workers, and other family and community members. The posters are supplemented by simple brochures. Topic(s): Breastfeeding, infant feeding and HIV
Type(s): Brochure, poster
Region: Sub-Saharan Africa




Spotlight on PMTCT: Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who Breastfeed Spotlight on PMTCT: Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who Breastfeed
The purpose of this issue of Spotlight is to provide decision makers, program managers, and health workers with guidance on how to support HIV-positive mothers who choose to breastfeed so that they can minimize the risk of transmission and protect their own health and the health of their infant. For many HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings, breastfeeding is the only or the safest infant feeding strategy available.

Languages Available: English (04/2004), French (06/2004)
Download pdf kindly select language of pdf file to download: English, French | 4 Pages - 88 kb
Alternate on-site download Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who BreastfeedEnglish
 
Spotlight on Replacement Feeding: Transition to Replacement Feeding by HIV-Positive Women Who Breastfeed Spotlight on Replacement Feeding: Transition to Replacement Feeding by HIV-Positive Women Who Breastfeed
Many gaps remain in our knowledge of the risks associated with various infant feeding strategies under different conditions. This guidance, based on the best information currently available, is for HIV-positive women who choose to transition from breastfeeding to replacement feeding at about 6 months.

Languages Available: English (04/2004), French (06/2004)
Download pdf kindly select language of pdf file to download: English, French | 2 Pages - 66 kb
Alternate on-site download Transition to Replacement Feeding by HIV-Positive Women Who BreastfeedEnglish
   
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19 Pages
A Spreadsheet Model to Estimate the Effects of Different Infant Feeding Strategies on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and on Infant Mortality
This model was used to calculate results reported in: Ross JS, Labbok MH. Modeling the effects of different infant feeding strategies on young child survival and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Am J Pub Health 2004; 94:1175-1181. (This model is in Microsoft Excel.)

Author(s): J. Ross, M. Labbok
 
Downloads Available: English (467 KB)
 
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6 Pages
Breastfeeding and HIV/ AIDS- Frequently Asked Questions
Reviews the latest information on the transmission of HIV via breastfeeding and provides programmatic guidance for field activities.

Downloads Available:
English (123.79 KB) - French (129.89 KB) - Spanish (199.03 KB) - Portuguese (130.35 KB)
 
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41 Pages
East and Southern African Initiative - Nutrition for PLWHA Counseling Cards
This set of 11x14" counseling cards was designed for counselors and health workers to help them enhance nutrition couseling for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) during individual or group counseling. These include topics related to good nutrition and its importance, preventing infection, physical activity and managing diet.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, FANTA

Downloads Available: English (1.88 MB)
 
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36 Pages
HIV and Infant Feeding: A Chronology of Research and Policy Advances and Their Implications for Programs
Informs program managers and others about major advances in the study of HIV and infant feeding and the policy responses to these findings.

Author(s): E. Piwoz, E. Preble
Contributing Partner(s): SARA Project

Downloads Available: English (290.31 KB) - French (180.89 KB)
 
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47 Pages
 
HIV and Infant Feeding: Knowledge, Gaps and Challenges for the Future
A 2004 PowerPoint presentation on mother-to-child transmission of HIV and timing of HIV transmission; overview of postnatal HIV transmission risk factors; results of efforts to quantify risks of different infant feeding strategies using a simulation model; current and planned field trials of interventions to prevent MTCT through breastfeeding; discussion of future challenges. (To view the notes, first open the Powerpoint, then go to the Edit menu, then choose Edit Slides.)

Author(s): E. Piwoz and J. Ross
Contributing Partner(s): SARA Project

Downloads Available:English (1.18 MB)
 
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25 Pages
 
Infant Feeding Options in the Context of HIV
This document identifies the specific behaviors required of a mother or caregiver to act upon the infant feeding recommendations and informed choice policy of WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS, and UNFPA.

Downloads Available: English (447.88 KB)
 
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186 Pages
Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding: Community Motivators Course
The LINKAGES basic course on Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding (for community motivators) is designed to provide community motivators with a basic understanding of HIV facts and prevention, mechanisms of MTCT, current MTCT risk reduction interventions, and infant and young child feeding in the context of PMTCT. The course also reviews nutritional recommendations for pregnant women and new mothers in areas affected by HIV.

Downloads Available: English (1.14 MB)
 
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265 Pages
 
Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding: Health Providers Course
The LINKAGES basic course on Integrated Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and Support for Infant Feeding (for health providers) is designed to give clinic-based health personnel and supervisors a basic understanding of HIV facts and prevention, mechanisms of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, current MTCT risk reduction interventions, and infant feeding in the context of HIV. The course also reviews nutritional recommendations for pregnant women and new mothers in areas affected by HIV and AIDS.

Downloads Available: English (2.85 MB)
 
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131 Pages
 
LINKAGES Zambia 1997-2005 Final Report
A full report on LINKAGES infant feeding and HIV/AIDS programs in Zambia.

Downloads Available: English (3.03 MB)
 
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20 Pages
 
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with High HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of high HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO

Downloads Available: English (160.85 KB)
 
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15 Pages
 
Nutrition Job Aids: Regions with Low HIV Prevalence
LINKAGES and its partners developed nutrition protocols to remind workers of information to be shared and procedures to be followed at six contact points with mothers: 1) antenatal, 2) immediate postpartum, 3) postpartum and family planning, 4) immunization, 5) growth monitoring/well child, and 6) sick child consultations. This protocol covers such topics as infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and maternal nutrition, specifically for regions of low HIV prevalence.

Contributing Partner(s): RCQHC, REDSO/ESA, BASICS, UNICEF, WHO

Downloads Available: English (161.42 KB)
 
thumbnail graphic Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV Communication Guide for Health Workers
This guide, developed in Zambia, provides information that health workers can use to communicate with mothers and community members on PMTCT and infant and young child feeding. It also gives communication tips for promoting and supporting healthy behaviors.

Downloads Available: English (5.54 MB)
 
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80 Pages
 
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Asia: Practical Guidance for Programs
Provides technical information, program guidelines, and a basis for policy dialogue and coordination for preventing MTCT in resource-constrained settings common in Asia.

Author(s): E. Piwoz and E. Preble
Contributing Partner(s): The Academy for Educational Development's Center for Nutrition and Family Health

Downloads Available: English (616.07 KB)
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from TANZANIA Integrated PMTCT Community Survey
LINKAGES and its partners in Tanzania developed a questionnaire for mothers of infants less than 12 months old on infant feeding practices, reproductive health, and HIV. A questionnaire for adults in the community focused on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and practices; use of HIV counseling and testing services, and attitudes on mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Downloads Available: English (102.56 KB)
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Baseline Prior to PMTCT Media Campaign
LINKAGES and the District Health Management Board in Zambia conducted a baseline survey prior to launching Act Now!, a media campaign. The survey form was used with mothers of infants less than 12 months old and included questions about antenatal care and infant feeding practices and knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV. .

Downloads Available: English (88.35 KB)
 
thumbnail graphic Questionnaires from ZAMBIA Integrated Infant Feeding and HIV Counseling Program
As part of the Ndola Demonstration Project, LINKAGES developed clinic and community-based surveys to gather information on infant feeding practices, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and use of HIV services. Questionnaires were designed for use with pregnant women, mothers of infants 0–5 months and 6–11 months of age, and adults in the community.

Downloads Available: English (273.45 KB)
 
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105 Pages
 
Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning: Application for Training in Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Related Topics
The purpose of this training module is to strengthen the capacity of facilitators/trainers to plan, organize, and conduct training of health care workers who implement programs in infant and young child feeding, essential nutrition actions, the lactational amennorhea method, and/or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Downloads Available: English (472.81 KB)
 
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54 Pages
 
Using the Essential Nutrition Actions to Improve the Nutrition of Women and Children in Ethiopia, including under Situations of Emergencies and HIV and AIDS: Training Guide
This Trainer’s Guide is intended to equip senior health instructors and planners in Ethiopia with the basic theory and technical update to design and implement the Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) approach, or to train others to do so. (THE TRAINING MODULE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Handouts, PowerPoints or Electronic References. To view the training module, click on the link, "English" below; to view the Handouts for this training, click here; to view the PowerPoints, click here; to view the Electronic References, click here)

Downloads Available: English (418.24 KB)
 
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108 Pages
 
Women’s Nutrition throughout the Life Cycle and in the Context of HIV and AIDS
The purpose of this module is to explore issues regarding women’s nutrition: women’s nutritional status, causes of malnutrition, the effects of malnutrition on the intergenerational life cycle, the consequences of inadequate weight and height, micronutrient deficiencies, and interventions to improve women’s nutrition. The module also addresses the synergistic relationship between nutrition and HIV infection, the nutritional requirements of HIV-positive pregnant or lactating women and adolescent girls, and nutritional care and support of HIV-positive women.

Downloads Available: English (535.61 KB)
 
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4 Pages
 
World LINKAGES: Zambia
Describes LINKAGES' infant feeding and HIV programs with central and district health, AIDS, and nutrition agencies in Zambia.

Downloads Available: English (72.08 KB)
 



   4 January, 2013
 
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